Separately to airborne or land based systems, vision applications that operate in underwater or subsea environments pose unique challenges, yet can provide substantial value to end users. Below a shallow surface region, the absence of natural light typically requires the use of dedicated light sources. Often underwater environments are muddy or turbid, containing many small particles which scatter light and reduce the effectiveness of any illumination used. The absorption of visible light by water also reduces the overall light captured by a camera, resulting in low contrast images and a reduced range of visibility. In addition to the optical considerations, hardware must be designed to cope with high pressures and corrosive seawater.